Home - Checklist of the Plants from the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

Poaceae

Aegilops cylindrica; Goat Grass; Introduced (Eurasia); Uncommon. This odd grass occurs in very dry disturbed areas. Locations are along Tacoma Lake Road near the Devil's Kitchen dam, and along Ogden Road east of Highway 148. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Agrostis gigantea; Synonyms: Agrostis alba; Red Top; Introduced (Europe); Very common in forests, fields, prairies, roadsides and moist disturbed areas throughout the Refuge. The closely related A. stolonifera (Creeping Bent Grass), not yet reported, should be looked for in the Refuge. It can be identified by the presence of stolons (instead of rhizomes) and a narrow (rather than spreading) inflorescence. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Agrostis hyemalis; Tickle Grass; Native; Common in woods and fields. Occurs along Rocky Bluff Trail. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Agrostis perennans; Autumn (Upland) Bent Grass; Native; ]: Common in dry forests. Easily found along Rocky Bluff Trail. This plant is very similar to A. hyemalis, but blooms in the fall rather than in spring and early summer. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Alopecurus carolinianus; Common Foxtail; Native; Locally common. Easily found along pathways in fields across from Harmony Trail. Also along the path entering the Prison RNA. It associates with Krigia (Serinia) cespitosa. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Andropogon gerardii; Big Bluestem; Native; This symbol of the tallgrass prairie is locally common in fields and prairies throughout the Refuge. An impressive, stately grass. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Andropogon gyrans; Synonyms: Andropogon elliotii; Elliott's Broom Sedge; Native; Locally common in roadsides and fields, e.g., along Stringtown Road. The plant can often be recognized from a distance by its rusty-red color. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Andropogon virginicus; Broom-Sedge; Native; Common in roadsides and fields throughout the Refuge. This plant has naturalized in Australia. Its common name is a misnomer, as the plant is not a sedge. A familiar sight in late fall. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Aristida dichotoma; Churchmouse Three-Awn; Native; Uncommon. It occurs on glades along the east side of Devil's Kitchen Lake. The plant is also called "Poverty Grass." Churchmice are said to be very poor. Hence the common name.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Aristida longespica; Slimspike Three-Awn; Native; Occasional to rare. It occurs at the southern boundary of the Refuge, e.g. along the Touch of Nature line. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Aristida oligantha; Plains Three-awn; Native; Locally common in dry, disturbed areas and glades. Can be recognized by its very long awns (up to 7 cm long). A large patch of this species grows between the parking area and the shore near the Spillway Crab Orchard Lake boat ramp.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Arundinaria gigantea; Giant Cane; Native; Uncommon in moist areas and low ground. A tall plant -- up to 5 meter or more.  It is actually a kind of bamboo. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Avena sativa; Oats; Introduced (Eurasia); An uncommon weedy species. In disturbed areas, e.g., along the parking lot at Wolf Creek Causeway.  Jones (2005) and Mohlenbrock (2014) recognize A. sativa as a distinct species. Yatskievych (1999) considers it to be a variety of A. fatua. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Brachyelytrum erectum; Long-awned Wood Grass; Native; Uncommon. This interesting lanky grass occurs in upland forests. It can be found along Rocky Bluff Trail as well as in the Prison RNA. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Bromus arvensis; Field Brome (Chess); Introduced (Europe); CCP and Ulaszek (1988) rate this species as locally common on a disturbed sandstone glade. Mohlenbrock (2014) reports it as "adventive in waste ground, not common but scattered in Illinois." Yatskievych (1999) excludes this taxon from the Missouri flora: apparently the only documentation of this plant in Missouri (at St. Louis in 1983) turned out to be misidentified B. japonicus. Jones (2005) does not mention the plant at all. Bromus arvensis is very difficult to distinguish from either B. japonicus or B. racemosus, both common, even abundant grasses. Hence easily overlooked. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Bromus commutatus; Hairy Chess, Meadow Brome; Introduced (Europe); Common in roadsides and fields. This species is almost identical to B. racemosus. The lemmas of  mature spikelets of B. commutatus and the branches of the inflorescence are longer than those of B. racemosus. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Bromus inermis; Smooth Brome; Introduced (Europe); Uncommon in roadsides, fields and disturbed areas. It is an abundant grass to the north of us. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Bromus japonicus; Japanese Brome; Introduced (Eurasia); A very common weedy grass of waste places, disturbed areas, and roadsides. The curved or twisted awns separate this taxon from B. commutatus and B. racemosusPhotos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Bromus pubescens; Synonyms: Bromus purgans; Woodland Brome; Native; This aptly named, tall, graceful grass is common to abundant in woodlands throughout the Refuge.  A lovely sight in the woods.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Bromus racemosus; Bald Brome; Introduced (Europe); Common to abundant in roadsides, fields, and disturbed areas. See B. arvensis and B. commutatus above.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Bromus sterilis; Barren Brome Grass; Introduced (Europe); Uncommon. A sizable population can be found along Tacoma Lake Road between Rocky Bluff and Devil's Kitchen dam. It appears to be a recent invasive, not listed by Ulaszek (1988) or CCP.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Bromus tectorum; Downy Cheat Grass; Introduced (Europe); Probably our most abundant Brome, flowering along roadsides and waste places. The spikelets are crowded and long-awned, giving the plant a bushy appearance. Though weedy, it is, on closer look, a pretty grass.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Chasmanthium latifolium; Synonyms: Uniola latifolium; River Oats; Native; This plant is very common in woodsy areas throughout the Refuge. It is listed by Ulaszek (1988), but not in CCP. The flat, drooping spikelets help turn this beautiful plant into a familiar sight. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Cinna arundinacea; Stout Wood Reed; Native; Another impressive, tall and stately woodland plant, locally common in forests and moist shaded areas throughout the Refuge.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda Grass; Introduced (Europe or Africa); A low-growing mat-forming plant, occupying large areas in the Prairie Creek Recreation Area, south of Hwy 13. Mohlenbrock (2014) considers it occasional in the southern half of Illinois. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dactylis glomerata; Orchard Grass; Introduced (Europe); Common. Originally planted as a pasture grass, it has spread into fields, roadsides, and disturbed areas throughout the Refuge.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Danthonia spicata; Poverty Oat Grass; Native; Locally common in wooded areas and shaded roadsides. The leaves at the base of this plant are curled. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium acuminatum; Rosette Grass / Hairy Panic Grass; Native; Common at forest edges, moist areas, fields and disturbed areas. Abundant in the woods surrounding Devil's Kitchen Lake. A widespread grass in both North and South America. It is variable: numerous varieties have been named. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium boscii; Large-fruited Panic Grass; Native; Very common at forest edges and in forests. Also in Rocky Bluff area. Can be recognized by its relatively broad leaves and hairy nodes. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium clandestinum; Deer-Tongue's Grass; Native; Locally common in moist areas in forest. Along the creek near entrance to Rocky Bluff Trail. It also has broad leaves, but the nodes are not hairy. It is a much more robust plant than D. boscii.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium commutatum; Broad-leaved Panic Grass; Native; Uncommon. Can be found in woods near the entrance to Rocky Bluff Trail. This grass resembles D. clandestinum, but the spikelets are shorter and the leaf sheaths are not hairy.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium depauperatum; Synonyms: Panicum depauperatum; Starved Panic Grass; Native; Herbarium specimen by Ellis & DeFilippi 1960, in the dam area of Devil's Kitchen lake, accession no. 39350. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium dichotomum; Forking Panic Grass; Native; Ulaszek (1988) considers the presence of this plant to be occasional. It is very common along forest edges and in forests throughout Refuge. Botanists recognize a half dozen or more varieties.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium laxiflorum; Loose-flowered Panic Grass; Native; Common at forest edges , easily found, e.g., in the woods on the west side of Devil's Kitchen Lake. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium linearifolium; Narrow-leaved Panic Grass; Native; Ulaszek (1988) reports this plant as uncommon, occurring in successional fields and on sandstone glades. Mohlenbrock (2014) considers it occasional in dry woods throughout the state. I have not yet seen it in the Refuge. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium microcarpon; Small-fruited Panic Grass; Native; ]: Occasional in dry-mesic upland forest. It occurs, e.g.,  along Grassy Creek at Rocky Bluff Trail.  Jones (2005) and Yatskievych (1999) treat this taxon as a variety of D. dichotomum. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium polyanthes; Many-flowered Panic Grass; Native; ]: Locally common in wooded areas. Can be found along Grassy Creek at Rocky Bluff Trail and in woods around Little Grassy Lake. Mohlenbrock (2014) and Jones (2005) recognize this taxon as a distinct species. Yatskievych (1999) considers it a variety of  D. sphaerocarpon (see below). Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium scoparium; Velvety Panic Grass; Native; Rare. It occurs at the southern edge of the fields across from Harmony Trail. Ulaszek (1988) does not list it. This interesting grass can be easily identified by its hairy stems and the presence of a sticky band below each node of the stem. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon; Round-fruited Panic Grass; Native; Occasional, scattered on wooded slopes in dry upland forest along the west side of Devil's Kitchen Lake.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Digitaria ischaemum; Smooth Crab Grass; Introduced (Europe); Abundant everywhere in the Refuge in disturbed areas, waste ground and lawns. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Digitaria sanguinalis; Hairy Crab Grass; Introduced (Eurasia); Common in lawns, disturbed areas, roadsides and fields.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Echinochloa colonum; Synonyms: Echinochloa colona; Jungle Rice; Introduced (Eurasia); Occasional in dry, disturbed areas and waste ground. Occurs, e.g., at the Wolf Creek Causeway parking area. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Echinochloa crus-galli; Barnyard Grass; Introduced (Eurasia); Its status in the Refuge is unclear, due to its similarity to our native E. muricata (see below). It occurs along shores of Little Grassy Lake. Also at observation deck at west end of Wolf Creek Causeway. Apparently this species is infrequent in forested areas. It can be identified by the absence of "puscular bases" (blisterlike bumps at the base) of the hairs of the spikelet. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Echinochloa muricata; Rough Barnyard Grass; Native; This is the common Barnyard Grass in the Refuge. Occurs in a variety of habitat: woods, roadsides, fields, disturbed areas, an on the shores of creeks and lakes. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Eleusine indica; Goose Grass; Introduced (Eurasia); ]: Common in disturbed areas and waste ground, roadsides and fields throughout the Refuge. Introduced from Asia or Africa. The spikes of this generally low-growing grass look zippered Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Elymus glabriflorus; Southeastern Wild Rye; Native; Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Elymus hystrix; Synonyms: Hystrix patula; Bottlebrush Grass; Native; This beautiful plant fortunately is common in woods and shaded roadsides throughout the Refuge. One of our most photogenic grasses. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Elymus riparius; Riverbank Rye; Native; Herbarium specimen by Sands & Garrison 1958, at Crab Orchard Lake, accession no.  30147. The identity of the specimen in the SIU herbarium was confirmed. This taxon is very similar to E. villosus. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Elymus villosus; Hairy Wild Rye; Native; Common, mostly in wooded areas. Throughout the Refuge. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Elymus virginicus; Virginia Wild Rye; Native; Common in woods, thickets, and along creek banks and lake shores. This plant resembles E. villosus, but its spikes are erect; those of E. villosus are nodding. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Eragrostis capillaris; Lace Grass; Native; Occasional in dry soil in wooded areas. Occurs e.g., on peninsula at north end of Devil's Kitchen Lake. A delicate, wispy plant. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Eragrostis cilianensis; Stinking Love Grass; Introduced (Eurasia); Uncommon in waste ground, disturbed areas, lawns, roadsides, even cracks in sidewalks. It is a glandular plant, exuding an unpleasant odor. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Eragrostis frankii; Sandbar Love Grass; Native; Another wispy love grass, occasional in moist, sandy areas and roadsides. Occurs, e.g., along dirt roads leading to Crab Orchard Lake. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Eragrostis hypnoides; Pony Grass, Creeping Love Grass; Native; Occasional in muddy areas. Occurs along shore of Little Grassy Lake near boat landing by dam. It forms mats by rooting at the nodes. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Eragrostis pectinacea; Carolina Love Grass; Native; Common in disturbed areas throughout the Refuge. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Eragrostis pilosa; India Love Grass; Introduced (Eurasia); Occasional in sandy roadside areas, e.g., at end of road to South Grassy Bay off Spillway Road. It is very similar to E. frankii, differing in the size of the glumes. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Eragrostis spectabilis; Purple Love Grass; Native; Common in fields, along roadsides and disturbed areas. Often recognized from a distance by its pale purplish color, especially when growing in masses. After it matures, the plant often becomes a tumble weed. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Saccharum alopecuroides; Synonyms: Erianthus alopecuroides; Silver Plume Grass; Native; A tall handsome grass, often exceeding 3 meters in height, with large silvery plumes. Occasional. Scattered along edges of woodland in both Crab Orchard and Devil's Kitchen Lake areas. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Festuca subverticillata; Synonyms: Festuca obtusa; Nodding Fescue; Native; This elegant fescue is locally common in wooded areas. Plentiful along Rocky Bluff Trail. A very similar species, F. paradoxa, is to be looked for in the Refuge. Its spikelets strongly overlap, whereas those of F. subverticillata are widely spaced. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Festuca trachyphylla; Sheep Fescue; Introduced (Europe); Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Glyceria striata; Fowl Manna Grass; Native; A beautiful, tall, yet delicate grass with multiple inflorescence branches and spikelets, arched and drooping. Locally common in moist places in forests and fields throughout the Refuge.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Hordeum pusillum; Little Barley; Native; Locally common along roadsides and in disturbed ground and fallow fields throughout the Refuge. Native. It is actually a southern plant, reaching as far north as Illinois. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Hordeum vulgare; Barley; Introduced (Asia); Occasionally escaped from fields along west side of Hwy 148. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Leersia oryzoides; Rice Cutgrass; Native; Locally common along marshy lake and creek shores. This tall aptly-named grass blooms in the fall, its light green color making it a conspicuous presence in wet areas. The leaves are minutely spiny and saw-toothed, giving rise to the saying: Nothing cuts like Leersia! A truth readily acknowledged when walking through a patch of this grass! Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Leersia virginica; White Cutgrass; Native; Locally common in woods and shaded moist areas.  This plant can be confused with the invasive Stilt Grass (Microstegium vimineum -- see below). Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Leptochloa fascicularis; Synonyms: Leptochloa fusca; Salt Meadow Grass; Native; Rare. Along Campground Road north of Giant City Park. Some botanists consider L. fascicularis a subspecies of L. fusca, others do just the reverse. I follow Mohlenbrock (2014). Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Leptochloa panicea; Synonym: Leptochloa attenuata; Red Sprangletop; Native; Rare. A beautiful grass. Occurs in fields along Stringtown Road. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Leptochloa panicoides; Synonyms: Diplachne panicoides; Amazon Sprangletop; Native; Rare. Along shore of Crab Orchard Lake east of Hwy 148 at north end of Causeway. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Lolium multiflorum; Italian Rye Grass; Introduced (Europe); A common weed in fields, roadsides, disturbed areas, waste ground, around parking areas. Yatskievych (1999) and Jones (2005) consider this species to be a variety of L. perenne (see below). The two taxa seem quite distinct: L. multiflorum is an annual, with spikelets 10-20-flowered, and more robust than L. perenne which is a perennial, with spikelets 6-10-flowered.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Lolium perenne; English Rye Grass; Introduced (Europe); A common weed in fields, roadsides, disturbed areas, waste ground, around parking areas. See L. multiflorum above. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Melica nitens; Three-flowered Melic Grass; Native; Occasional. Rocky woods and sandstone glades. I have not yet located this neat plant in the Refuge. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Microstegium vimineum; Stilt Grass; Introduced (Asia); This foreign invader is rapidly becoming a serious problem in the Refuge. Jones (2005) reports this species as abundant in Kentucky, while Mohlenbrock (2014) still listed it as occasional in southern Illinois. In the Refuge it is locally abundant in woods, shaded places and near weedy shores. Extensive patches occur along the River-to-River Trail. At Rocky Bluff, Stilt Grass is poised to choke out many of the beautiful native plants that make the area a paradise for nature photographers. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Muhlenbergia bushii; Nodding Muhly; Native; Ulaszek (1988) reports this grass as rare in floodplain forest. Mohlenbrock (2014) describes the species as "not common," restricted to the southern 2/3 of Illinois. It is on the endangered list in Kentucky. It appears to be more common in Missouri. I have not seen it in the Refuge.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Muhlenbergia frondosa; Common Satin Grass; Native; Ulaszek (1988) reports this taxon as locally common in fields, thickets, and margins of Devil's Kitchen Lake. A common and widespread plant, no doubt by oversight not yet observed in the Refuge. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Muhlenbergia schreberi; Nimblewill; Native; Locally common is shaded, weedy sites in woods and disturbed soil. In the fall this plant, rooting at the nodes, tends to turn into a sprawling mass of green. Its common name, originally spelled "nimble Will," refers to the speed with which the grass was thought to overtake new areas. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Muhlenbergia sobolifera; Rock Satin Grass; Native; A dainty grass, locally common in woods and shaded places. Other similar Muhlenbergia species, such as M. mexicana and M. sylvatica, should be looked for in the Refuge woodlands. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Panicum anceps; Synonyms: Coleataenia anceps; Beaked Panic Grass; Native; A very common grass, abundant in fields, moist areas in woods and ditches throughout the Refuge. Easily identified by its sickle-shaped spikelets. Mohlenbrock (2014) assigns this plant to a distinct genus Coleataenia (One-sided Panicum), in agreement with the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). The genus differs from Panicum in that the panicle branches are one-sided and the spikelets are on pedicels less than 1 mm long. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Panicum capillare; Witch Grass; Native; Status unclear because of its similarity to P. gattingeri and P. philadelphicum (see below). Of these three, Ulaszek (1988) and CCP lists only P. gattingeri. Plants I examined near the boat landing on the west side of Devil's Kitchen Lake off Tacoma Lake Road near the dam and around Little Grassy Lake appeared to check out as P. capillare. This species, a pretty grass, is reported to be a common widespread weed. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Panicum  dichotomiflorum; Fall Panicum; Native; Uncommon. Ulaszek (1988) reports this grass as locally common along roadsides, waste ground, and margins of ponds and Devil's Kitchen Lake. In habit resembles P. virgatum, but can be identified by its more modest appearance, smaller spikelets, and the clincher: a very short, rounded lower glume.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Panicum flexile; Slender Panic Grass; Native; Uncommon along roadsides and forest edges around Devil's Kitchen Lake. Its narrow spikelets are longer compared to  those of similar Panicum species. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Panicum gattingeri; Gattinger's Panic Grass; Native; Status unclear. Ulaszek (1988) reports it as locally abundant in a sandstone glade. This plant appears to be common near Devil's Kitchen dam and at the north end of Little Grassy Lake. This grass is robust -- up to a meter tall. Yatskievych (1999) considers it a synonym for P. philadelphicum. Jones (2005) lists it as a subspecies of P. philadelphicum. This seems problematic, as P. philadelphicum is normally a much smaller plant. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Panicum philadelphicum; Philadelphia Witchgrass; Native; Uncommon. Plants observed along Tacoma Lake Road appeared to match the manuals' descriptions. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Panicum rigidulum; Synonyms: Coleataenia rigidulum; Munro Grass, Redtop Panic Grass; Native; Locally abundant in moist areas and margins of ponds and lakes. For the name change, see Panicum anceps above. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Panicum virgatum; Switch Grass; Native; We can find it in areas along the northeast shore of Little Grassy Lake. A tall (up to 3 meter), sturdy, yet graceful grass. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Paspalum dissectum; Mudbank Bead Grass; Native; Ulaszek (1988) found one colony of this rare plant in shallow water and margin of an artifical pond. It is a southeastern, semi-aquatic species. Panicum dissectum is listed as endangered on the 2011 Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board Checklist. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Paspalum floridanum; Giant Bead Grass; Native; Locally common in grassy fields. It can be readily found in the Wolf Creek Causeway area. It is indeed an imposing giant grass, with flowering stems up to 2 meters long. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Paspalum fluitans; Synonyms: Paspalum repens; Swamp Bead Grass; Native; Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Paspalum laeve; Smooth Lens Grass, Field Paspalum; Native; Our most abundant Paspalum. It occurs in lawns, fields, roadsides, ditches. The spikelets are attached singly to the rachis. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Paspalum pubiflorum; Hairyseed Bead Grass; Native; Another very common Paspalum, found along roads and in moist areas throughout the Refuge. Spikelets are attached as pairs and over 3 mm long. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Paspalum setaceum; Synonyms: Paspalum ciliatifolium; Slender Bead Grass; Native; Locally common in fields and roadsides, in both dry and moist soil. Very similar to P. publiflorum but its spikelets are smaller -- less than 3 mm long. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Phalaris arundinacea; Reed Canary Grass; Native; Still uncommon in the Refuge, but could become invasive and difficult to control. A sizable population can be seen near the observation platform, west of Hwy 148. It is a circumpolar species, native to North America, Europe and Asia.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Phleum pratense; Timothy; Introduced (Europe); Common in fields and roadsides throughout the Refuge. In the 18th century this grass was introduced from Europe by a fellow named Timothy Hanson. Hence its common name. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Phragmites australis; Synonyms: Phragmites communis; Reed; Native and Introduced (Native to Old World); Ulaszek (1988) considers it uncommon. Undoubtedly by oversight not listed in CCP. The plant is locally common along lakes shores and wet places. Tall and adorned with a large plume, nonnative varieties of this grass tend to be aggressive and can become very invasive. Yatskievych (1999, p. 620) reports that "P. australis has perhaps the broadest range of any flowering plant species, occurring naturally on every continent except Antarctica".  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Poa angustifolia; Narrow-leaved (Smooth) Meadow Grass; Native; Uncommon to rare in fields and shaded roadsides. Easily overlooked and very difficult to distinguish from the very common P. pratensis. Jones (2005) considers it a variety of P. pratensis. Yatskievych (1999) makes no mention of this taxon. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Poa annua; Annual Bluegrass; Introduced (Eurasia); Locally common here and there in lawns, moist disturbed places, fields and along trails, even in cracks in the street. A cute bright green little grass, sometimes visible at all times of the year. A similar native species, P. chapmaniana, was collected by Garbaciak at Devil's Kitchen dam in 1956 (SIU herbarium), and should be looked for in the Refuge.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Poa bulbosa; Bulbous Bluegrass; Introduced (Europe); Locally common in dry disturbed soil. Can be found along Stringtown Road. An interesting grass: it multiplies by forming bulblets. The plant does not produce grain. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Poa compressa; Canadian Bluegrass; Introduced (Eurasia); Common. In fields and roadsides, and in openings in the woods. The plant can be recognized by its flat stems. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Poa pratensis; Kentucky Bluegrass; Introduced (Eurasia); An abundant lawn grass present throughout the Refuge in fields, woods, roadsides, and waste places. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Poa sylvestris; Woodland Bluegrass; Native; Locally common in damp areas in the woods. A graceful perennial plant without rhizomes. Can be found along Rocky Bluff and Harmony Trails. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Schedonorus arundinacea; Synonyms: Festuca arundinacea, Festuca elatior, Tall Fescue; Native; Abundant along roads, fields, prairies and disturbed soil throughout the Refuge.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Schedonosus pratensis; Synonym: F. elatior, F. pratensis; Meadow Fescue; Introduced (Europe); Common in disturbed places and roadsides throughout the Refuge. Schedonorus arundinacea and S. pratensis were formerly regarded as varieties of a single species, Festuca elatiorSchedonorus arundinacea is the taller and more robust of the two, with  4-5 flowered spikelets. The spikelets of S. pratensis are 6-10 flowered. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Schizachyrium scoparium; Synonyms: Andropogon scoparius; Little Bluestem; Native; Abundant in woods, along roads, in fields and dry disturbed areas. The plants turn reddish-orange in the fall. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Secale cereale; Rye; Introduced (Eurasia); Escaped in roadsides near planted fields, e.g., along Hwy 148. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Setaria faberi; Giant (Nodding) Foxtail; Introduced (Asia); An abundant weedy plant in disturbed soil throughout the Refuge. A tall striking plant, conspicuously graced with a long nodding "foxtail" spike.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Setaria pumila; Synonyms: or Setaria glauca, Setaria lutescens; Yellow Foxtail; Native; Even more abundant than S. faberii. Everywhere in the Refuge in fields, roadsides, waste ground, you name it!   Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Setaria viridis; Green Foxtail; Introduced (Eurasia); Common in disturbed soil, fields, waste and grassy places. A variable species: some plants are low growing, others can grow to more than a meter tall. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Sorghastrum nutans; Indian Grass; Native; Locally common in fields and prairies. An aristocratic, lovely grass with a colorful inflorescence. With Big Bluestem and Switch Grass, an icon of the tall grass prairie. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Sorghum halepense; Johnsongrass; Introduced (Eurasia); Abundant throughout the Refuge in roadsides, fields, and disturbed places. This tall, spectacular (and beautiful) grass unfortunately is also an aggressive, invasive, noxious weed. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Spartina pectinata; Chord (Slough) Grass; Native; Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Sphenopholis nitida; Shining Wedge Grass; Native; Rare in dry woods on the west side of Devil's Kitchen Lake. This plant is very similar to the next. The anthers are more than 1.0 mm long. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Sphenopholis obtusata; Prairie Wedge Grass; Native; Occasional in dry forest. The anthers are less than 1.0 mm long. The plant generally tends to be taller than S. nitidaPhotos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Sporobolus compositus; Synonyms: Sporobolus asper; Rough Dropseed; Native; Uncommon to rare. Along the Ogden Road east of Hwy 148. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Sporobolus vaginiflorus; Poverty Dropseed; Native; Common in very dry, disturbed places throughout the Refuge. In general, a low-growing weedy plant, easily ignored.  Two closely related and similarly-looking species, S. neglectus and S. ozarkanus, should be looked for in the Refuge. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Tridens flavus; Purpletop; Native; ]: Abundant along roadsides and edge of woods, in fields and disturbed areas. Its tall, graceful demeanor and purple spikelets make this plant a decorative fall presence throughout the Refuge. Picking this plant will leave the violator with sticky fingers -- literally! Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Tripsacum dactyloides; Gama Grass; Native; Locally common in roadsides. A conspicuous plant along the Wolf Creek Causeway. An imposing grass, reaching nearly 3 meters in height. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Triticum aestivum; Wheat; Introduced (Eurasia); ]: Mostly an escape from planted plots.  Present, e.g., in area near Tacoma Lake Road Devil's Kitchen boat ramp. Several varieties may occur. Seldom persists. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Vulpia myuros; Foxtail (Rattail) Fescue; Introduced (Europe); Occasional in woods (especially west of Devil's Kitchen Lake) and dry disturbed areas.  This species appears to be widespread but quite uncommon. The awns of the florets are much longer than those of V. octoflora. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Vulpia octoflora; Sixweeks Fescue; Native; Uncommon. Occurs in fields and dry soil in forests and roadsides.. The genus Vulpia was formerly included in Festuca. A native plant introduced in Europe and Asia.  Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants

Zea mays; Corn; Introduced (native to Mexico); Cultivated in the Refuge. Here and there near the croplands individual plants appear but do not persist. Photos Phytoimages; USDA Plants